Issue 21

issue date: june 2008

Contents

WAR AND ENVIRONMENT

Sanja Stanić, Anja Kutleša

Summary

The paper discusses the influences of modern war on environment. The first part presents the concept of war as short review of social thought on war, as well as the explanation of the term of environment figured out as overall of natural and social surroundings. The influences of war on environment are analyzed on examples of four particular wars, each of them marked out by the specific manifestation on environment. The example of Vietnam War shows how destruction of environment can be under war operations and serves as war strategy. The war in Persian Gulf was selected as an example of how environment could be used as the mean of threat, and how it could be terrorized. As environment includes cultural heritage and social context, the Iraq war is observed as case of culturocide, and the Croatian war of independence as an example of how environment become social unavailable and dangerous because of land mine contamination. It is also pointed on the development of war means and techniques as becoming more destructive and invasive, manifesting in environment with long term and chain of consequences. In conclusion influences of war on environment are confronted to the influences of everyday, peacetime human activities, as well as war is regarded as risk of modernization in the context of U. Beck’s theory.

AL QA’IDA: EMERGENCE, STRUCTURE AND STRATEGY

Mirko Bilandžić

Summary

Al Qa’ida is a consequence of War in Afghanistan. By gradual transformation to a terrorist organization, it became an expression of a new form of terrorism that came out of transnationalism and globalization. Al Qa’ida, as an advocate of global jihad and creation of pan-islamic caliphate, is transnational by identity and recruitment of members, and global by ideology, strategy, goals and organization network. American war on terrorism didn’t turn out to be efficient and didn’t destroy Al Qa’ida. Even more, after declaration of war on terrorism Al Qa’ida became more powerful: ideologically, in organization, in manpower and operationally. Its power to carry out terrorist strikes was significantly increased. After 2001, Al Qa’ida yearly makes five times more terrorist strikes over the world (not counting Afghanistan and Iraq) than in the period up to 2001. That makes Al Qa’ida a bigger challenge to international security than ever before, it is still the biggest single danger to international security.

DIE WRACKS DER KRIEGSSCHIFFE AUS ZWEI WELTKRIEGEN AUF DEM MEERESGRUND VOR PAG

Zvonimir Freivogel

Summary

An der Adria gab es in beiden Weltkriegen zahlreiche Gefechte, als Folge gibt es, vor allem in Kvarneric, mehrere Schiffswracks, die erst neulich entdeckt und besucht wurden. Diese Arbeit zeigt die Geschichte zweier Torpedierungen von österreichisch-ungarischen Handelsschiffen durch italienische Unterseeboote im I. Weltkrieg, die Vernichtung einer ganzen deutschen Kampfgruppe im Gefecht gegen britische Zerstörer im Herbst 1944, sowie den Verlust eines britischen Zerstörers nach dem Minentreffer vor Pag. Anhand von Taucherberichten und der Suche nach der Geschichte dieser Schiffe in der verfügbaren Literatur konnte man diese Ereignisse rekonstruieren und die Wracks eindeutig identifizieren.

FÜHRUNG UND ORGANISATION DER TRUPPENSTÄBE DES DEUTSCHEN HEERES IM ZWEITEN WELTKRIEG

Mario Werhas

Summary

Die Struktur (die Organisation) der Stäbe ist immer sehr eng mit dem Aubau (der Organisation) der ganzen Armee und mit ihrem Kampfwert verbunden. In dieser Arbeit wurde der Schwerpunt der Beschreibung und der Erklärungen auf die allgemeine Charakteristika bei der Führung und Organisation der Truppenstäbe gelegt. Durch eine solche Darstellung wurde die Übersicht der Grundsätze für die Funktion der Truppenstäbe des deutschen Heeres vor und während des Zweiten Weltkrieges wieder gegeben. Durch die Beschreibung der Phänomene bei der Führung und der Struktur der Truppenstäbe gewährt man den Einblick in die Grundlagen der deutschen Kriegsführungsphilosophie . Der Autor wollte auch mit der Anführung deutscher Militärtermine bestimmte Begriffe erklären, weil er in unserer Literatur oft gänzlich oder zum Teil falsche Erklärungen deutscher Militärbegriffe vorgefunden hatte.

CONTROVERSIES OF THE VANCE’S PLAN

Vladimir Filipović

Summary

In this text the author questions the task of mediation of the U.N. special envoy Cyrus Vance during the war in Croatia, as well as the mere formation and acceptance of his plan. Mediation is approached from the point of view of the realistic school of international relations which sees this task as the fight for the interests of the ones who mediate, and only after that of those involved in the conflict. Through mediation, Vance succeeded in bringing both warring sides to cease-fire in Sarajevo, on 2nd January 1992. Document known as Vance’s plan, regulated relations between Croatian authorities and rebel Serbs. After occupying most of the intended territory in Croatia, Milošević and JNA decided to call international peace forces to Croatia in order to preserve the acquired borders. With Croatia being recognized, the presence of JNA became illegal. Also, there was the need to preserve the strength and number of JNA forces for the forthcoming war in Bosnia. Croatia, which demanded the presence of the international forces since summer 1991, saw the threat of making Serb conquests permanent by the above mentioned plan, as well as the possibility of the country becoming a variant of Cyprus situation. Rebel Serbs have also rejected the plan.

XXI CENTURY GEOPOLITICS: CHANGING OF THE WORLD ORDER AND THE MILITARIZATION OF THE WORLD - STUDENT FORUM

Alen Sućeska

Summary

Geopolitics, as a discipline which studies the causal relationships between political power and geographic space, is becoming a more significant sphere of social and political global change which is a consequence of international relations. The research analyses geopolitical changes which are occurring and are about to occur, as well as the causes and possible consequences of those changes. It is argued that the geopolitical dominance of the United States is coming to an end, and that China and India are readily marching forward to the world scene. One of the results of that is that space, by its ever more intense militarization, is becoming a new domain of geopolitical conflict. With the absence of adequate functioning of international institutions such as the UN, it is concluded that the consequences of the described changes can be the intensifying of conflicts, but also an even more resolute creating of multipolarity.

BOOK REVIEWS

Summary

Afganistanski kaos kao posljedica regionalne i svjetske politike spram zemlje i ljudi – Ahmed Rashid: Descent into Chaos: How the war against Islamic extremism is being lost in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia (Robert Mikac)

Hezbollah – kratka povijest Božje stranke – Augustus Richard Norton: Hezbollah - A Short History (Mihovil Brebrić)

Opasna moć – Shalom, Stephen R. (ur.) (2007.) Perilous Power: The Middle East & US Foreign Policy: Dialogues on terror, democracy, war and justice (Irena Grgurić

masthead

Glavni i odgovorni urednik – Editor-in-Chief

Ozren Žunec

Izvršni urednik – Executive Editor

Mirko Bilandžić

Organizacijski urednik – Organization Editor

Velimir Milaković

Članovi uredništva – Associate Editors

Nenad Fanuko, Zvonimir Mahečić, Davor Marijan,
Tomislav Smerić, Siniša Tatalović, Ivo Žanić

Međunarodni urednici – International Editors

Norman Cigar (Vienna, Virginia, USA), Igor Primorac (Jerusalem, Israel)

Tajništvo – Secretariat

Nada Begić, Tajana Leskovar

Izdavački savjet – Advisory Board

Vjekoslav Afrić, Damir Barbarić, Tomislav Bunjevac, Ivan Cifrić, Ognjen Čaldarović, Benjamin Čulig, Rade Kalanj, Vjeran Katunarić, Vladimir Kolesarić, Mirjana Krizmanić, Krešimir Kufrin, Zvonimir Lerotić, Davorka Matić, Milan Mesić, Tomislav Murati, Darko Polšek, Ivo Prodan, Vesna Pusić, Ivan Rogić, Aleksandar Štulhofer, Anton Tus, Radovan Vukadinović, Herman Vukušić

Međunarodni izdavački savjet – International Advisory Board

Anton Bebler (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Janusz Bugajski (Washington DC, USA), Christina Doctare (Stockholm, Sweden), Bjorn Egge (Oslo, Norway), Matthew Friedman (White River Junction, Vermont, USA), Marjan Malešič (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Anton Žabkar (Ljubljana, Slovenia)

UDK – UDS Classification

Josip Prgomet

Lektura i korektura – Editing and proofreading

Ines Trkulja

Grafičko oblikovanje – Art Director

Darko Bednjanec

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Ivica Petrinić

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