Issue 18

issue date: october 2006

Contents

Absolute Sacrifice and Relative Compensation: Contradictions of the Social Position of War Veterans and the State Care for War Veterans and Disabled Veterans

Ozren Žunec

Summary

Coupling contradictory yet connected principles of civilization and war, veterans constitute a fundamental category of civil-military relations. Veterans define themselves primarily as former warriors and only in second place as former armed forces members. The research is focused to find reasons why social (state) care for veterans is different from care for other underprivileged or handicapped groups and why it offers an unparalleled plethora of rights and benefices. It is argued that this is the consequence of inability of civil sphere to compensate for war experience and for soldier's sacrifice. The conclusion is that all systems of care are inadequate and that veterans will pose an insoluble social problem as long as there are wars.

The Naval Flags on the Eastern Adriatic

Željko Heimer

Summary

The flags are used on warships since the antiquity. Among numerous flags used in the navies on warships, there are as particular flags that are used as the identification of the ship's nationality - ensigns hoisted at stern. This paper presents these flags as used by various navies that had their seat in the Eastern Adriatic. The first power that introduced naval ensigns was the Habsburg Monarchy, yellow with black imperial eagles. With the reforms of Joseph II the Austrian red-white-red triband was introduced to be used with minor alterations until the end of the Dual Monarchy. In the period after the World War I the captured naval ships used the Allied ensigns, while the majority of the Austro-Hungarian fleet that surrendered in Pula hoisted briefly the Croatian tricolours. The new South-Slavic state introduced a new tricolour. During the World War II the Independent State of Croatia used the banner of chequy arms for the ensign in its few ships. At the same time the partisans introduced the red five-pointed star in the national tricolour, sometimes used upside-down. Several designs were exchanged during the war. The Socialist Yugoslavia introduced naval flags based on the Soviet model. Even before the formal independence Croatia dropped the star from its flags and put the chequy shield in its tricolour. Until the adoption of the current design shortly the simple ad hoc versions were in use, and afterwards the ensign was of equal design to the merchant ensign. The new design adding anchors was introduced in 1999.

Future Prospects of Conflict in Northern Ireland: The End of IRA or United Ireland

Mirko Bilandžić

Summary

Decisions made by "Provisional" Irish Republican Army to abandon armed struggle and to disarm in July and September 2005. have an important influence on peace process and overall developments in Northern Ireland, as well as a historical significance. These decisions were not made ad hoc. They evolved gradually during a 25 year period. This period is characterized by the transformation of Republican movement, which transformed from a dominantly armed organization to a dominantly political organization. Historical significance of decisions to disarm and abandon armed struggle is manifested in the fact that they in a certain way represent the end of the Irish Republican Army. On the other hand, these decisions are part of Republican strategy for the 21st century. It is a strategy for peace, formulated in a phrase "with a ballot paper in both hands", and with it, in the 21st century. Republicans will try to achieve their several centuries old goal of unified Irish republic on entire territory of Irish island.

German "Secret Weapon

Miroslav Goluža

Summary

Exceptionally unfavorable strategic position of Prussia made its military leadership act quickly in search of new solutions. A part of military analysts attributed German efficiency to exceptional discipline and repressive measures employed to keep the discipline. According to other analysts, Wehrmacht was so fast on account of the use of tanks, motorized vehicles and airplanes. A large number of the analysts believe that German militarism and National Socialist fanaticism in WWII is the root of their success, especially so when discussing the persistent defense actions in the second phase of the war. The proper explanation of the most efficient military organization in recent history can be found in the area "military software", i.e. in the system of command and control, appropriate military training and education and the choice of officers and non-commissioned officers. The system of mission command (Auftragstaktik) was not forced on the military from the top. It grew from the bottom, from German mentality and behavior, and Moltke the Elder contributed greatly to its being institutionalized. This system facilitates the release of the enormous amount of energy of individual initiative which is mostly unexploited in the majority of military organizations. This is the explanation for the efficiency of German operations, and not the technical equipment of their military. This discussion does not intend to offer German examples as the best solutions for our military organization however, the system of mission command deserves more attention both in the military as well as in civilian sector.

Strategic Importance of Information-Communication Technology in Recent International Environment

Uroš Svete

Summary

Data, information, knowledge and understanding as three elements of cognitive scheme have always been determining social power as they have been significantly influencing political and military sphere as well. This wisdom was very explicit present already in ancient world (we can put out Chinese military and strategic thinker Sun Tzu). Despite of that is the information-communication technology (ICT) importance in time of information society very clear and reasonable. Within its revolutionary social implications we want to express security issues, at modern international community level as well as human individual level. But nearby recent security paradigms - realism, liberalism and constructivism, the social power theory ought to be mentioned and used as well. With this theoretical framework we wanted to discuss major power, security and international changes. Namely ICT basically changed these three topics in two ways: material and perceiving. On one hand ICT introduced some new power forms (e-economy, digitalisation of military, intelligence and secret services, e-governance etc.), on the other it influences especially our perception of physical world through spreading (digital) media. Therefore new strategic spaces (cyber strategic space) and concepts (virtual culture imperialism) appeared. But we also treated ICT as a matter of asymmetric world (technological, economical and cultural) development, leading into asymmetric conflicts of course.

Capturing the Yugoslav People's Army Barracks in Varaždin by the Croatian Army and the Surrender of the 32nd Varaždin Corps of the Yugoslav People's Army

Ivica Hrastović

Summary

In the first part the paper brings a short analytical assessment of the general political and military situation in the SFRY in 1991, and the data of significance (force and composition) of the 32 nd Yougoslav People's Army (YPA) corps which was one of the strongest corps in Yugoslavia. The second part basically deals with the establishing of the Emergency Staffs and making decisions on the blockade and capturing the barracks of YPA. The central part of the work places the emphasis on the concrete reasons and the plan of the blockade of the Garrison in Varaždin, and indicated the seriousness and phases of negotiations of its surrendering to the Croatian forces (fighting and psychological and propaganda war). The objectives of the Croatian Army are analyzed (to avoid the armed conflict and leaving of YPA Varaždin without its weaponry) together with the objective of the YPA (to leave Varaždin with the complete armament). The end of the work brings the conclusion on the importance of crushing the resistance of 32nd Mechanised Varaždin corpse important for organisation of CA and the victory in the Homeland War.

Under-representation in Armed Forces: Examples of Yugoslavia and Rwanda - STUDENT FORUM

Nikola Petrović

Summary

In this article ethnic under-representation in armed forces as one of the causes of ethnic wars is discussed. Examples of Yugoslavia and Rwanda, two countries that were marked by great ethnic conflicts in the 1990s, aim to present how two different models of ethnic under-representation influence the intensity and development of conflicts. Yugoslavian case shows transition from multi-ethnic to ethnically under-represented army and finally to uni-ethnic army during the dissolution of the state. Causes of this process in the Yugoslav People's Army, which were at the begining economical and cultural and at the end of the dissolution they became political and ethnical, have been analysed. In the end the creation of uni-ethnic army develops into the part of the plan to attack separated republics in 1991. Rwandian case is an example of the "Gurkha syndrome" or selecting one "warrior" nation to perform military functions in a given society. This situation after decolonisation resulted in the repetition of this pattern, but with reversed roles that influenced the cycle of violence which culminated with 1994 genocide. These two very different examples show the importance of the ethnic representation for the stability of multi-ethnic states and for the whole regions.

Strategikon - Anonymous Byzantine Work Strategicon on Slavic Warfare - STUDENT FORUM

Tomislav Šulj

Summary

Strategikon - Anonymous Byzantine Work Strategicon on Slavic Warfare

BOOK REVIEWS

Summary

Lica moći - Novalić, Fahrudin (2006.) Moć i rat: moć kao sustav podčinjavanja, dominacije i ratne destrukcije, Zagreb: Sveučilišna knjižara. 184 str. (Maja Žitinski)

Između rata i mira - Richards, Paul (ur.) (2005.) No Peace No War: An Anthropology of Contemporary Armed Conflicts. Athens: Ohio University Press. 214 str. (Petra Klarić Rodik)

Rat u gradu - Graham, Stephen (ur.) (2004.) Cities, War, and Terrorism. Blackwell Publishing. 416 stranica, 11 slika. (Stipe Grgas)

Nacionalna sigurnost u globalnom dobu - Todd, Paul i Jonathan Bloch (2003.) Global Intelligence: The World's Secret Services Today, London-New York: Zed Books. 240 str. (Mirko Bilandžić)

NEWS

Valerio Baćak

Summary

Skup "NATO: Past, Present, and Future" održan 6. - 9. ožujka 2006. godine u Tirani

masthead

Glavni i odgovorni urednik – Editor-in-Chief

Ozren Žunec

Izvršna urednica – Executive Editor

Petra Klarić Rodik

Organizacijski urednik – Organization Editor

Velimir Milaković

Članovi uredništva – Associate Editors

Nenad Fanuko, Zvonimir Mahečić, Davor Marijan,
Tomislav Smerić, Siniša Tatalović, Ivo Žanić

Međunarodni urednici – International Editors

Norman Cigar (Vienna, Virginia, USA), Igor Primorac (Jerusalem, Israel)

Tajništvo – Secretariat

Nada Begić, Tajana Leskovar

Izdavački savjet – Advisory Board

Vjekoslav Afrić, Damir Barbarić, Tomislav Bunjevac, Ivan Cifrić, Ognjen Čaldarović, Benjamin Čulig, Rade Kalanj, Vjeran Katunarić, Vladimir Kolesarić, Mirjana Krizmanić, Krešimir Kufrin, Zvonimir Lerotić, Davorka Matić, Milan Mesić, Tomislav Murati, Darko Polšek, Ivo Prodan, Vesna Pusić, Ivan Rogić, Aleksandar Štulhofer, Anton Tus, Radovan Vukadinović, Herman Vukušić

Međunarodni izdavački savjet – International Advisory Board

Anton Bebler (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Janusz Bugajski (Washington DC, USA), Christina Doctare (Stockholm, Sweden), Bjorn Egge (Oslo, Norway), Matthew Friedman (White River Junction, Vermont, USA), Marjan Malešič (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Anton Žabkar (Ljubljana, Slovenia)

UDK – UDS Classification

Josip Prgomet

Lektura i korektura – Editing and proofreading

Ines Trkulja

Grafičko oblikovanje – Art Director

Darko Bednjanec

Web stranice – Webmaster

Ivica Petrinić

Priprema za tisak – Desk Top Publishing

Zoran Žitnik

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