Issue 15-16

issue date: march 2005


The Beginnings of The Croatian Army NCOs Education During The Homeland War

Ante Nazor


The first Army Non-Commissioned Officer School was founded as a part of Croatian Military College that developed from the Army Officer Center, Zagreb. AOC started with its 3-month and 6-month educational programs in February 1992, and this first period ended by the November 1992. This paper focuses on the officer and NCOs education programs (program plans, course schedules and contents) and the organizational problems, human resources, material and technical difficulties the AOC faced during this period. The paper also discusses the beginnings of NCOs education performed (according to the plans of the Education Directorate of the Croatian Armed Forces Main Headquarters) outside the AOC, such as the courses performed at the Army Training Centers in November 1992. The story of the beginnings of the NCOs education (during 1991 and 1992) presented in this paper is not complete, as additional archival documents remain to be researched.

Education of Active-Duty Commissioned Officers at The Croatian Military College ´Petar Zrinski´from September 1992 to December 1993

Damir Jug


The paper presents education of active-duty officers at the Army Officer Center (renamed in January 1993 to Croatian Military College) form September 1992 to December 1993. After the introductory phase ended in August 1992, the Army Officers Center started providing various shorter or longer courses, seminars, etc. This paper provides a short description of courses for corporals in Army Training Centers, and intensive courses for the commanders of reserve brigades from all combat zones. Since September 1992, officers attended three-month and six-month courses. The three-month courses were held only form September 1992 to February 1993 and only two generations (i.e. classes) of officers attended these courses. From September 1992 to September 1993 two classes of officers completed six-month courses. By the end of November 1993, third class of officers started attending new six-month course and this form of courses continued during 1994.

Education of Officers at The Croatian Military College ´Petar Zrinski´ Officer School from 1992 to 1996

Marko Buklijaš


Education of officers and non-commissioned officers, established in 1993, has continued in 1994 - 1996 period. The attendees of the four- and six-month courses took part in military operations Flash, Summer ´95 and Storm in 1995 and continued their education afterwards. Five generations have finished the four-month educational programme and five generations completed the six month programme during 1994, 1995 and 1996. A number of officers have completed various short courses, such as the course in pyrotechnics and in the command of technical military units or of reserve units from different fields of operation. The Education Plans and Programs have been modified and the applied MPRI - DTAP system to secure a higher level of information technology implementation, in accordance with the NATO standards. Through changes in the candidate selection process, as well as the continuous education of teachers, the selection of candidates improved both for teachers and students and the school achieved excellent results in 1994, 1995 and 1996.

Command and Staff College ´Blago Zadro´ - The Education of Senior HV Officers during The Homeland War

Ivica Hrastović


The paper provides short overview of the beginnings of officer education and describes the outlook of the education system prior to the establishment of the Command and Staff College 'Blago Zadro'. Author describes all the aspects of officer education before the end of 1995 and analyzes all elements of didactical-methodical square. He describes the problems and difficulties within the education process and the ways they were resolved. Furthermore, he presents the establishment of the institution of officer education and the improvements of education process from 1st to 4th officer education class. The paper is written as a part of "Military Education in HV During the Homeland War".

Diplomatic Ambiguity: From the Power-Centric Practice to a Reasoned Theory

Dražen Pehar


The author proposes a theoretical guide for a practice-oriented analysis of diplomatic ambiguity. Based primarily on both the comments by classical diplomatic theorists and his own historical interpretation of the use of diplomatic ambiguity during the Rambouillet negotiations on the status of Kosovo/a, he offers a reconstruction of the power-centric view of diplomatic ambiguity that has been, as he demonstrates, implicitly endorsed by the key actors of the Rambouillet negotiating process. He claims that, though such a view can give one some insight into contingent historical developments and help one understand some cases of diplomatic practice, it suffers from several flaws that make it an unlikely candidate for a viable and comprehensive theory of diplomatic ambiguity. Furthermore the author presents, in a rudimentary and preliminary form, an alternative, more reasoned view of diplomatic ambiguity that is, on the one hand, language-centric and non - legalistic, and, on the other, sufficiently responsive to doxatic/cognitive aspects of ambiguity and also consistent with Der Derian´s concept of diplomacy as ˝mediation of estrangement˝.

Defence System and Ecology - The North Atlantic Treaty Organization Role

Vladimir Prebilič, Kristina Ober


A systematic research of direct and indirect influences of mankind on the environment started with the ecology. Accordingly, with the human's negative influence on the environment, the modern concepts of national security were broadened to include environmental threats. The military system was also put under this scrutiny because of its negative impacts on the environment. The result may be seen in the regulation of its activities and influences on the environment by international conventions and international agreements. However, the impact of the defence system on the environment, as a laboratory for training the armed forces and as the ultimate goal of the armed forces' activities, has not been studied sufficiently. Initial studies and research have been conducted by military experts only, but besides military experts international organizations, non-governmental organizations and academics are nowadays also involved in the studies of the consequences of defence system activities on the environment. NATO's Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) is taking a leading role in this area of research with its pilot studies on reducing aircraft noise, environmental restoration and clean-up of military bases etc. Development in this field indicates that of a new discipline of ecology e.g. the military ecology is being established.

Slavonia and Slavonian Military Units in World War I

Ivan Balta


There are many archived documents about soldiers from Slavonia. Most of the stories speak about their destiny on Serbian, Eastern and Italian fronts during World War I. Military units from Osijek, involved in war operations, were following: 78th Foot Division, 28th Foot Home front Division and parts of 12th Ulan and 38th Field-Gunner Division. Those divisions were located on Serbian Front until 1915, on Eastern Front until 1917 and Italian Front until the end of the war, mostly as a part of 8th military brigade, which means they were a part of the Austro-Hungarian Fifth and Sixth Armies. The units had many casualties and most of the wounded and deserters were returning to Slavonia. Therefore, Slavonia had to deal with a lack of food and other supplies for those soldiers. Also, the sanitarian services for soldiers were organized, most of them located in schools, movie theaters and hospitals. Slavonian military units, and especially divisions from Osijek, were going through real tough time because the number of wounded significantly increased. Most of the wounded soldiers came back from the trenches of the Galician and Bukovinian battlefields. Part of the Slavonian soldiers ended up in concentration camps across the Russian lands in Siberia and the Far East. Slavonian soldiers started fighting for one state, and, by the time the war finished, ended up in another. During that time they lost the sense of their goals and the overall meaning of the fighting.

CIA´s Covert Actions as a Component of U.S. Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era

Mirko Bilandžić


Due to international relations after the World War II, covert actions have become a significant instrument of American foreign policy. The responsibility to conduct covert actions lies within the authority of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Based on its results - successful conduct of covert actions and realization of American national interests - the CIA has become an important instrument, not only in executing American foreign policy, but also in playing a role in international relations. Covert actions, although being very efficient means for achieving national interests, are in fact an interventionst mechanism. Therefore, nearly all the activities the CIA conducted/conducts in that respect were/are illegal. In the post-Cold War era, the substance of covert actions did not change. On the other hand, their role and significance within the scope of American national security instruments altered to some degree. In post-Cold War era the U.S. wanted to consolidate their position of a single super power (uniploar world) and consequently changed their attitude towards the way of achieving their national security and foreign policy goals. Covert actions still remainded a significant instrument in achieving golas. Moreover, it seems that in the period after 1990. their indispensability continued to rise, but as opposed to the previous phase, covert actions are no longer the only and the most efficient means since military actions now got the major role in achieving American strategic goals.

Power and Subjection

Fahrudin Novalić


The author in the first part of article examines conception of power; and in the second part examines concentration and diffusion of power, relation of power prestige and of war, some forms of the war of cultures, which are part of covert war. Subtle forms, instruments and methods of covert war are complemented or are substituted of cruel forms, instruments and methods of military war. The author defines power as ability of use of power sources on purpose of efficient of will realization in some circumstances, mutually, of complex of forces relations and in spite of resistance others. Power distinguishs oneself as instrument of organizational and institutional of authority, too. Institutional structure of power is the most certain factor of distribution of power sources and of theirs use. Power is not distinguished oneself, only, as fisical compulsion, than and as a successful consent of people, when they do something of one´s own free will.

Obligatory Military Service and/or Civil Service

Zlatko Gareljić


Facing all the possible and existing extreme views considering the question of obligatory military service and civil service, it is necessary and possible to give realistic and responsible analysis of the problem. It is the responsibility of the state to secure a rational and effective security system and to organise, maintain and develop a defence system and armed forces as its central, powerful part. The equivalent responsibility is upon a democratic state and democratic society to ensure the protection and promotion of human rights and freedoms. The right to conscientious objection is one of the basic human rights. It is rooted in the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, the principles clearly defined by the UN Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) and the European Convention on Human Rights (1950). In the past years the norms and standards of the respect for the right to conscientious objection and alternative, civil service, have been clearly defined through the national laws and practices, through the activities of the international organisations - Council of Europe, European Parliament, OESS and UN - and through the activities of the national and international non-governmental organizations. Nevertheless, some countries with obligatory military service either do not respect the right to conscientious objection and alternative service at all, or have unsatisfactory laws and practices considering the accepted
norms and standards. By altering and improving the laws and practices considering the respect for the right to conscientious objection and civil service, Croatia has achieved the highest standards and can serve as an example to the other countries in the region. With the process of professionalization of the armed forces, the alternative, civil service will be discontinued, but the possibility of conscientious objection will remain. With the prospect of adoption of the all-volunteer armed forces format, the good communication and relations between the society and the armed forces become even more important.



Woodward, Rachel (2004.) Military Geographies. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing. 196 str. (Kruno Kardov)

Todd, Emanuel (2004.) Kraj Imperija. Zagreb, Masmedia. 225 str. (Vedran Ristić)


Glavni i odgovorni urednik – Editor-in-Chief

Ozren Žunec

Izvršna urednica – Executive Editor

Petra Klarić Rodik

Organizacijski urednik – Organization Editor

Velimir Milaković

Članovi uredništva – Associate Editors

Nenad Fanuko, Zvonimir Mahečić, Davor Marijan,
Tomislav Smerić, Siniša Tatalović, Ivo Žanić

Međunarodni urednici – International Editors

Norman Cigar (Vienna, Virginia, USA), Igor Primorac (Jerusalem, Israel)

Tajništvo – Secretariat

Nada Begić, Tajana Leskovar

Izdavački savjet – Advisory Board

Vjekoslav Afrić, Damir Barbarić, Tomislav Bunjevac, Ivan Cifrić, Ognjen Čaldarović, Benjamin Čulig, Rade Kalanj, Vjeran Katunarić, Vladimir Kolesarić, Mirjana Krizmanić, Krešimir Kufrin, Zvonimir Lerotić, Davorka Matić, Milan Mesić, Tomislav Murati, Darko Polšek, Ivo Prodan, Vesna Pusić, Ivan Rogić, Aleksandar Štulhofer, Anton Tus, Radovan Vukadinović, Herman Vukušić

Međunarodni izdavački savjet – International Advisory Board

Anton Bebler (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Janusz Bugajski (Washington DC, USA), Christina Doctare (Stockholm, Sweden), Bjorn Egge (Oslo, Norway), Matthew Friedman (White River Junction, Vermont, USA), Marjan Malešič (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Anton Žabkar (Ljubljana, Slovenia)

UDK – UDS Classification

Josip Prgomet

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Ljiljana Cikota

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