Issue 13-14

issue date: june 2004


Use of Information-Communication Technology in American-Iraqi Conflict 2003-2004

Uroš Svete


In the present article we analysed the role and significance of Information-communication technology (ICT) in modern conflicts whereby the case study of American-Iraqi conflict during the year 2003-2004 was chosen to research. This conflict was divided into three stages: preparing, direct open confrontation (operation Iraqi Freedom) and postconflict stage which started when the major military operations ended and in the same time when Iraqi asymmetric rebellion started to begin. We tried to answer the question how both sides used ICT for preparing on the coming war as well as how especially American side used ICT within its military forces and weapon systems (implementation of network centric warfare concept). In the second part of the contribution we analysed how Iraqi rebels used ICT and other electronic media as an asymmetric warfare mean. At the same time the ICT influence for the conflict outcome was critically estimated. The main scientific originality lies especially in combining social (defence studies) and informatics research methods as well as communication research methods for propaganda analysing. We were trying to prove that holistic research of ICT role in modern conflicts is possible only under condition of interdisciplinary research approach.

NATO Transformation and Defense Reform

Robert Barić


There are several factors that will influence continuation of defense reforms in the Republic of Croatia. One of the key factors contains Croatian preparations for upcoming NATO membership and country’s preparations for its future participation in EU military activities. Considering the NATO transformation, from collective defense, into the collective and cooperative security organization, current and future alliance members will be required to make their armed forces capable to participate in crisis management missions, expeditionary warfare and power projection. Mentioned preparations will be a key for Croatian involvement in security – defense policy of the EU (ESDP). Second factor that will influence further development of the CAF is the ongoing process of the global military transformation (RMA), and the third factor will evolve from the Croatia’s role, as a NATO member in the region. Therefore, during further CAF development, Republic Croatia should develop the structure of its armed forces that will not only enable its participation in NATO and EU defense activities, but simultaneously to fulfill its constitutional mission (defense of Republic of Croatia’s territorial integrity and sovereignty) in the new security environment. Aimed to satisfy above mentioned requirements, this work gives a conceptual model of possible restructuring of the CAF based on the principles of componency and modularity.

Death of the Yugoslav People`s Army and the War of Succession

Robert Niebuhr


The death of Yugoslavia took place in tandem with the death of the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA). Initially, the JNA sought to maintain the integrity of the federation but soon unraveled along ethnic lines. The JNA’s internal transition thus serves as a microcosm of the process of Yugoslav dismemberment. On a personal level, soldiers with mixed ethnicities had to choose allegiances. That struggle mirrored certain choices by civilians, but on a much more troubling level—namely, who to shoot at and why? Finally, no discussion of the breakup of Yugoslavia can go without mentioning the role of the League of Communists. The relationship between the army, party, and state helped create fissures and further confusion, especially with the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. How could a party-run army and state peacefully transition to some form of a multi-party state and mixed economy? The troubles that plagued former Yugoslavia and the JNA, especially during the 1980s, created a mixture that helped foster disaster and death at all levels.

The Beginning of Systematic Education of Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers in Croatian Army

Damir Jug


In this article I demonstrate how did the very beginnings of systematic education of Croatian Army look like. The aim of education was achieving greater efficiency and battle readiness during the first years of war – 1991 and 1992. Throughout the first war campaigns, there was a lot of improvisation. Reservists had, if any, only the basic training. Organized trainings began when JNA started to abandon barracks on liberated territory of Republic of Croatia. As early as November 1991 organised education for Croatian army officers started in Varaždin and Zagreb (Borongaj) barracks. After Croatian army captured barracks in Ilica 256b, Zagreb, where Training and Education Centre "Ivan Gošnjak" was placed, entire education was transferred in Zagreb. In this article, I write only about courses organised in classes according the service branches. During period described here, six classes of reserve officers attended courses. This is first and transitional period in Croatian army officers and non commissioned officers education. Sources I used for this article are from archives of Officer School. I used material from two boxes – "školstvo pov." ("education confidential") and "školstvo interno" ("education internal") – labelled by class marks 800 and 803 and having signature marks 02 and 04.

Civilian Victime in Section South During and Immediately Afetr the Operation Storm (Key Indicator)

Igor Graovac


Based on the report of the Croatian Helsinki Board for Human Rights in Zagreb, this paper analyses the data on murdered and on some missing civilians in the former Section South under the protection of the United Nations, during the Operation Storm and after it. It also analyses the structure and other indicators concerning the victims and, partly, the perpetrators. This refers to 410, i.e. after the corrections, 414 determined civilian victims in the year 1995 (94.5 percent), in addition to 24 other victims that fell between the beginning of 1996 and the beginning of 1999 (5.5 percent), which makes a total of 438 victims. This paper analyses/categorizes the victims according to their place of residence or the town, place and municipality where they perished, and the time of their death, the ways they died, and the information if they perished as a group (one fifth that was killed in massacres) or individually (four fifths). Furthermore, they are analysed according to their gender (there were twice as many male victims than female), age (the victims were mostly old, than elderly and younger middle-aged people, and the least victims were young), and the national affiliation (most victims were Serbs – even 97 percent). Finally, and in addition to that, perpetrators are stated too (where they had been determined, in more than two fifths of the cases): most victims were killed by the Croatian military forces (two thirds).

War Or Peace? – Military Organizations in Northern Ireland and Their Categorization

Mirko Bilandžić


The conflict in Northern Ireland, whose modern phase began in 1969, is highly complex and it is impossible to unequivocally define it. On the one hand, it is an internal conflict with the elements of an ethnic, religious and civil strife, and on the other, this is a conflict with a critical international dimension. There have been various definitions of the conflict in Northern Ireland, but one thing is certain: this is undoubtedly one of the most prolonged and bloodiest conflicts in modern Europe. In the focus of contemporary Northern Ireland’s conflict there is terorrism. This paper gives outline of the military organizations in Northern Ireland. Analysis reveals that military organizations in Northern Ireland are in fact terorrist organizations. Some of them have been existed for almost a century.

Mythologies as the Constitutive Element of Contemporary Political Discourse - STUDENT FORUM

Šura Švabić


The speech of former president of the Republic of Slovenia dr. Janez Drnovsek is used as an concrete example for showing, by applying various methods and especially Oswald Ducrot’s polyphonic theory of argumentation in language-system, that of that argumentational and rhetorical figures in discourse are not external to the language-system but are on the contrary an essential part of the language-system itself. In practice it is also impossible to distinguish purely rhetorical figures from argumentative elements in the discourse. The text exposes some mythological elements of the national ideology which then serve as a starting point for the critique of dominant ideology in general.

Historiography on Causes of Defeat of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in April War 1941. – Continuation of War by Other Means. - STUDENTSKI FORUM

Goran Hutinec


During the World War II Serbian nationalists often claimed that treacherous behavior of Croats and other non-Serbian peoples of Yugoslavia was the main reason for a quick breakup of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in April War of 1941. Even though Communist party of Yugoslavia (CPY) sharply objected to such claims, decline of communist supremacy made it possible for these ideas to gain foothold in modern Serbian history. These theories were quickly used by Serbian nationalistic propaganda in order to discredit non-Serbian peoples of Yugoslavia. This article argues that bad long term foreign and defence policy and inadequate civilmilitary relations were true reasons for defeat of Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941. Unsolved national question of Croat and other non-Serbian nations of Yugoslavia contributed to its weakness, but it is neither the only nor the main reason of Yugoslav defeat.



Beevor, Antony (2003.) Staljingrad. Zagreb: Stih. (Igor Drvendžija)

Publije Flavije Vegecije Renat (2002.) Sažetak vojne vještine. Zagreb: Golden marketing. (Antonio Tomas)


Glavni i odgovorni urednik – Editor-in-Chief

Ozren Žunec

Izvršna urednica – Executive Editor

Petra Klarić Rodik

Organizacijski urednik – Organization Editor

Velimir Milaković

Članovi uredništva – Associate Editors

Nenad Fanuko, Zvonimir Mahečić, Davor Marijan,
Tomislav Smerić, Siniša Tatalović, Ivo Žanić

Međunarodni urednici – International Editors

Norman Cigar (Vienna, Virginia, USA), Igor Primorac (Jerusalem, Israel)

Tajništvo – Secretariat

Nada Begić, Tajana Leskovar

Izdavački savjet – Advisory Board

Vjekoslav Afrić, Damir Barbarić, Tomislav Bunjevac, Ivan Cifrić, Ognjen Čaldarović, Benjamin Čulig, Rade Kalanj, Vjeran Katunarić, Vladimir Kolesarić, Mirjana Krizmanić, Krešimir Kufrin, Zvonimir Lerotić, Davorka Matić, Milan Mesić, Tomislav Murati, Darko Polšek, Ivo Prodan, Vesna Pusić, Ivan Rogić, Aleksandar Štulhofer, Anton Tus, Radovan Vukadinović, Herman Vukušić, + Josip Županov

Međunarodni izdavački savjet – International Advisory Board

Anton Bebler (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Janusz Bugajski (Washington DC, USA), Christina Doctare (Stockholm, Sweden), Bjorn Egge (Oslo, Norway), Matthew Friedman (White River Junction, Vermont, USA), Marjan Malešič (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Anton Žabkar (Ljubljana, Slovenia)

UDK – UDS Classification

Josip Prgomet

Lektura i korektura – Editing and proofreading

Ljiljana Cikota

Grafičko oblikovanje – Art Director

Darko Bednjanec

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Ivica Petrinić

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