Issue 11-12

issue date: april 2003


“Unity” – JNA’s Last Organizational Framework

Davor Marijan


The paper discusses the last organizational framework of the Yugoslav People’s Army (Jugoslavenska narodna armija, JNA), codename “Unity”, from 1987-1990. Different from earlier frameworks, “Unity” was modelled much after real territorial divisions of the Federative Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia. Its chief architect was Admiral Branko Mamula. Acting as the federal minister of defence, Mamula succeded in downplaying the Universal People’s Defence and Social Self-defence conception, in marginalizing the participation of republics in the defence system, and put the Territorial Defence under control of JNA. He acheived a degree of centralization that was in place prior to the 1960s. The paper gives basic data on the order of battle, system of command and control and the doctrine of “battle in space”. Conclusion is that the “Unity” initially represented the basis for keeping Yugoslavia by force, to be later changed into an attempt for the realization of the Greater Serbia project.

Challenges of Reform and the Reduction of Croatian Armed Forces: Politics of Personnel Management as a Consequence of War Events and of the Establishment of Croatia’s Armed Forces

Zvonimir Mahečić


At the beginning of the war in the former Yugoslavia newly recognised Republic of the Croatia didn’t have its indigenous Armed Forces. They were established during the War from 1991. onwards. As a consequence, all (with some limitations) the citizens who wanted to contribute to the defence of the country were allowed to join first “Zbor Narodne Garde” and later the Armed Forces. During the process, because of the more or less logical and understandable reasons personnel was not subject to the fulfilment of the clear set of criteria for joining the Armed Forces. As a consequence today the Armed Forces are faced with the fact that a part of its personnel is not capable of responding to the social, technological, intellectual, operational and other demands of the changed security environment of today that reflects so decisively security and defence structures of the nation. The same shortcomings influence fundamental reform and downsizing of the Armed Forces partly because transition of the surplus military personnel to the civilian life and structures is hampered by the grave organisational, financial and psychological demands. Having in mind the elements that facilitated existence of the negative selection in the personnel management policy, politicisation of at least one part of the Armed Forces and lack of understanding of the military and security issues on the part of the political institutions, it becomes clear that whole society is faced with the problem whose resolution asks for the systematic and co ordinated approach of all the political institutions, as well as institutions of the civil society.

Proposal Of A Higher Education System For The Needs Of The Defence

Vjekoslav Stojković, Mladen Barković


The main elements of the education system for the needs of defence are presented as well as their interconnectivity and complementarity. The basic principles are presented that need to be considered when designing higher education for the needs of defence. It is emphasised that suitable development of groups of elective courses or groups of elective subjects adjusted to the needs of military organisation, military technology, can establish a higher education curriculum in compliance with the needs of the defence. Certain motivating examples are presented regarding design of elective courses and elective subjects at some leading West-European civil or military higher education institutions that offer higher education for the needs of their armed forces and the ministry of defence. Certain previous experiences in the Republic of Croatia are presented, regarding implementation of higher education for the needs of the defence. Advantages and disadvantages of the higher education for the needs of the defence are analysed, founded based on the existing civil higher education system, and established as a completely new higher education institution for the needs of the defence. Starting from the indicated advantages and disadvantages, a model of integrated civil-military undergraduate education for the needs of the defence is proposed.

Delegitimizing Multiculturalism: The Role of Cultural Elites in Ethnic Conflict

Charles Ingaro



War and National Identity

Max Haller



The Social Role of Military and Police Institutions in The 21st Century

Renato Matić


Fulfilling expectations is the shortest definition of any institution’s role in society, and the same applies to the military and police. It means dealing with pressing problems. The pressing problems of the 21st century are perennial problems, but now those threats are our own created monsters: terrorism, which has almost replaced the conventional type of warfare; the international organized crime, whose leaders were created by different “special needs” of particular governments, and later used the tax-payers’ money to built their own underworld empires; and ,environmental destruction, which is turning into destruction of life on Earth. These are just some of many problems and threats to the world’s future which must be solved, and the key institutions which will be able to neutralize those threats are the military and police. Making and presenting the government’s decisions about using the military and police to neutralize those threats, and making them acceptable to others (to the citizens who have empowered them; to the strategic partners) will not be possible by using the same way of thinking which produced those threats in the past. To neutralize future threats to human beings, social institutions – especially the military and police, as well as governments – must switch from the traditional (hard) use of power, aimed at achieving special (selfish) interests, to the “soft” use of power, aimed at creating the common good.

Playing the War? Civil and Military Use of Wargames

Teo Matković


The paper discusses wargames in civillian and military usage. The development of military wargaming is reviewed since the early Prussian Kriegsspiel to the integrated computermediated wargaming. The general public started playing wargames at the beginning of the 20th century, half a century later civilian wargaming boomed and grew more elaborated, and recently made its transition to personal computers and Internet. Although all wargames fulfill most of the criteria and functions ascribed to the activity of play, military wargames lack three key characteristics: they are not free, they are not nonproductive and they are not purposeless. Hence, it would be more appropriate to understand them as technical redoings – a method of purposeful gaming in a simulated context. Wargames better the understanding of war and warfare in civilian usage as well. However, in recent years, wargames have become ever less based on history and reality of warfare, and ever more present as postmodern simulations – real virtualities.


Tino Jelavić


Retrospect on article "Razmatranja o JNA (2)" by Marinko Ogorenc

Political Institutions, International Organizations, and the Security of the Republic of Croatia – Students’ attitude - STUDENT FORUM

Ivana Brnada, Lada Jerin


This study is based on the empirical research, conducted in February 2003, at the University of Zagreb. The main intention was to establish concrete students’ on some fundamental political issues, such as: the influence of governmental on the national security as well as the level of support to the entrance in NATO main task of the research was also extended on the current political occurrences: of army service, the relations with neighbour countries and potential threats security. Most important data was compared with the research from year 2000. was conducted on the random sample; therefore it is impossible to make precise about ttitudes regarding national security. Nevertheless, it is very important decrease of trust in government institutions as well as the growing distrust NATO alliance.



Bojan B. Dimitrijević (2003.), Jugoslavija i NATO (1951 – 1957) (Nikica Barić)

Omer Bartov (1992.): Hitler’s Army, Soldiers, Nazis and War in the Third Reich. (Nikica Barić)

Doubt, Keith (2000.): Sociology after Bosnia and Kosovo. (Nataša Ferenčak)


Glavni i odgovorni urednik – Editor-in-Chief

Ozren Žunec

Izvršna urednica – Executive Editor

Petra Rodik

Organizacijski urednik – Organization Editor

Velimir Milaković

Članovi uredništva – Associate Editors

Nenad Fanuko, Tarik Kulenović, Davor Marijan, Siniša Tatalović, Ivo Žanić

Međunarodni urednici – International Editors

Norman Cigar (Vienna, Virginia, USA), Igor Primorac (Jerusalem, Israel)

Tajništvo – Secretariat

Nada Begić, Tajana Leskovar

Izdavački savjet – Advisory Board

Vjekoslav Afrić, Damir Barbarić, Tomislav Bunjevac, Ivan Cifrić, + Zvonimir Červenko, Ognjen Čaldarović, Benjamin Čulig, Rade Kalanj, Vjeran Katunarić, Vladimir Kolesarić, Mirjana Krizmanić, Krešimir Kufrin, + Muradif Kulenović, Zvonimir Lerotić, Davorka Matić, Milan Mesić, Tomislav Murati, Darko Polšek, Ivo Prodan, Vesna Pusić, Ivan Rogić, Aleksandar Štulhofer, Anton Tus, Radovan Vukadinović, Herman Vukušić, Josip Županov

Međunarodni izdavački savjet – International Advisory Board

Anton Bebler (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Janusz Bugajski (Washington DC, USA), Christina Doctare (Stockholm, Sweden), Bjorn Egge (Oslo, Norway), Matthew Friedman (White River Junction, Vermont, USA), Marjan Malešič (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Anton Žabkar (Ljubljana, Slovenia)

UDK – UDS Classification

Josip Prgomet

Lektura i korektura – Editing and proofreading

Ljiljana Cikota

Grafičko oblikovanje – Art Director

Darko Bednjanec

Web stranice – Webmaster

Ivica Petrinić

Priprema za tisak – Desk Top Publishing

Naklada Jesenski i Turk

Tisak – Printed by

NTT graf, Zagreb

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