Issue 8

issue date: october 2001


Social Prestife of Officer Proffesion in Croatia - A View from Within

Tomislav Smerić


Study on a convenience sample of 268 senior and junior officers in the AFRC, conducted in the course of 2001, revealed a significant gap between the perceived and the desired level of social prestige of officer profession. This gap is wider than the one established in similar studies in other European countries. Croatian officers think that level of prestige of their profession has significantly decreased since the end of the Homeland war. Their expectations are divided regarding its increase in the context of integration of Croatia in NATO. The influence of subjects’ personal characteristics, their status in the military organization and their social origin on the relatively low level of perceived social prestige of the profession hasn’t been confirmed. A connection has been found between the perceived level of prestige of the profession and the level of job satisfaction, especially regarding the availability of certain aspects of the job (opportunity for promotion, salary). The difference between the level of prestige of the profession as perceived by the officers and by the public has been established indirectly. Results of the study point to the assumption that the shaping of the assessment of the social prestige of the profession is influenced by problems connected with the crisis of the restructuration process of armed forces in the postwar context and the behaviour of those social actors who intermediate images of officer profession between officer corps and the public.

Propaganda, the Media, Heroes, Myths and Warriors

Reana Senjković


The history of the research of mass media and the propaganda they disseminate is in its essence connected with the great wars of the twentieth century. They provided a strong incentive to the study and research of the influence of the media on the forming of public opinion. Also, social crises, of which wars are certainly the most intense kind, make people more dependant on information, but also less critical of their content. And while all these statements are indisputable, the room they leave for different viewpoints, insights and even disciplines always allows them to be a subject of discussion, which can never be fully concluded.
The media images from wartime Croatia (1991-1995) very much resemble the media images of other wars of the twentieth century. Accordingly, the figure of the Croatian Warrior, derived from these images to become a role model, and a motivator, but also to inscribe itself into the identity of the nation, greatly resembles other figures of model warriors. Still, that figure, as many relevant segments in foreign scientific literature show, is not necessarily and exclusively the result of top-down war censorship. But it seems especially interesting to compare the media-produced figure of the Croatian Warrior with the "Croatian soldier" described by wartime autobiographic prose, or the testimonies of those who went to war as volunteers, as well as those who were brought to the battlefields through mobilization. Here, the field reflections of the media-produced Warrior often become the objects of mockery or reasons for bitterness. The first case refers to the uselessness of "iconographic additions" and even the misunderstanding of the "laws of the battlefield", while the second case refers to the dishonesty of the image and its disproportion in view inadequate supplies and hard conditions of warfare.

Croatian Children 's War Literature

Dubravka Zima


The author close reads Croatian children’s war literature and finds two dominant narrative forms in the prose. The first presents the war as a period of maturing, growing up for the children characters, that is, it concentrates on the child’s experience of the war. The child character and its thoughts are more important in the narration than the external reality, which is in the background. The second narrative form acts in the exactly opposite way: disregarding the child’s experience, it concentrates on the external reality of war events, actively including the children characters, thus making a constructed, stylized and schematized narrative space. The author analyses parts of the opuses of the following Croatian children’s writers who write war prose: Anđelka Martić, Danko Oblak, Milivoj Matošec, Gabro Vidović, Sunčana Škrinjarić, Blanka Dovjak Matković, Zora Dirnbach, Dragan Božić, Ferdo Bačić, Mirko Vujačić, Josip Barković, Stjepan Tomaš, Nikola Pulić, Maja Gluščević, Hrvoje Hitrec, Vladimir Tadej, Nada Iveljić, Predrag Raos, Zlatko Krilić, Ivan Kušan and Dunja Kalilić. Parts of the opuses of Croatian children’s poets who wrote poems on the war are interpreted in short as well.

Soldiers Honour

Sanimir Rešić


The paper deals with the question of soldier’s honour as a value that is an integral part of the soldier’s mentality and, as such, present in all military societies throughout history. The author defines honour through the development of the code of honour. He traces the transformation of the notion of honour from an exclusively aristocrat trait in medieval times to a trait which the middle and upper class share with the military elite, in matters relating to vocation, as well as those connected with personal honour. As a contemporary example the author examines the American soldiers’ understanding of honour during the Vietnam War. Through the analysis of letters and diaries of the soldiers who participated in military operations, the author shows how much contemporary warfare has distanced itself from the traditional romantic notion of honour. A dishonourable war, as the Vietnam War has already been defined, through American soldiers’ writings on it most often show an absence of the concept of honour.

The Armed Forces of the Italian Social Republic (September 1943 - April 1945)

Nikica Barić


This article covers the foundation, development and organization of the armed forces of the Italian Social Republic, which was founded in September of 1943, shortly after the capitulation of the Kingdom of Italy. Mussolini took over the leadership of the new Fascist republic, which was totally dependent on German support. An important question for the Social Republic was the creation of its armed forces. In fact, several military organizations were established – the regular army and various Fascist formations. These forces were controlled by the Germans and mainly used in actions against the Italian partisans, and only seldom were these units used in battles against the American and British forces.

Brief Overview on New Law of Deffence Production, Overhaul and Trade of weapons and Defense Equipment

Dinko Mikulić, Zdenko Matijaščić


This article provides a brief overview on the main characteristics of the new Law on defense production, overhaul and trade of weapons and defense equipment. It is discussed how new Law is affecting affirmation of domestic defense production and its perspective in order to be competitive in future tasks. By this Law transformation of former wartime production is getting new shape of peacetime development. Some new categories are incorporated like “preserved capability”, offset programs and “list of approved manufacturers” which includes crafts. Long-term Armed Forces Development Plan, approved by Parliament, will be base for development of the Plan for defense production and overhaul of weapons and defense equipment. Production for MoD needs is done through contracts with manufacturers. For export of defense articles production is done through contracts between manufacturer and buyer with prior approval of Government Agency. Possible consequences of not completely defined defense production and management system were analyzed. Perhaps this legal regulation will enable restart of neglected domestic development and defense production and prevent degradation of its role.


Marinko Ogorec


Retrospect on book review "Razmatranja o JNA" by Zlatka Rendulića (Polemos no. 7)



Jordan, David C. (2000.) Politika i droga, Prljavi novac i demokratske
države. Zagreb: AGM. (Marin Dešković)

Jay Mallin Sr. (2000.): Cuba’s Armed Forces – From Colony to Castro, Ancient Mariners Press, Reston Virginia, 441 str. (Nikica Barić)

Chomsky, Noam (2001.): 9-11. New York: An Open Media book, Seven Stories Press. 125 str. (Tamara Puhovski)

Efendić, Hasan (1998.): Ko je branio Bosnu. Sarajevo: Udruženje građana plemićkog porijekla BiH, Sarajevo. 351 str. (Haris Berbić)

Round-table discussion - Ostali su ožiljci: Druga strana rata - kako je (bilo) civilima? (Ana Herceg)

Druga strana rata - kako je ( bilo ) civilima? Round-table discussion, Zagreb, 8. i 9. 12. 2000., reports & discussions. - Zagreb (2001.), Heinrich Boli Stiftung. 107 str. (Nikica Barić)



Experiences in organization of modern education: Postgraduate study "Guidance & management of movable objects" 1994.-1999. (Robert Fabac)


Glavni i odgovorni urednik – Editor-in-Chief

Ozren Žunec

Izvršna urednica – Executive Editor

Tarik Kulenović

Organizacijski urednik – Organization Editor

Velimir Milaković

Članovi uredništva – Associate Editors

Nenad Fanuko, Davor Marijan, Siniša Tatalović, Ivo Žanić

Međunarodni urednici – International Editors

Norman Cigar (Vienna, Virginia, USA), Igor Primorac (Jerusalem, Israel)

Tajništvo – Secretariat

Nada Begić, Petra Rodik

Izdavački savjet – Advisory Board

Vjekoslav Afrić, Damir Barbarić, Tomislav Bunjevac, Ivan Cifrić, + Zvonimir Červenko, Ognjen Čaldarović, Benjamin Čulig, Rade Kalanj, Vjeran Katunarić, Vladimir Kolesarić, Mirjana Krizmanić, Krešimir Kufrin, + Muradif Kulenović, Zvonimir Lerotić, Davorka Matić, Milan Mesić, Tomislav Murati, Darko Polšek, Ivo Prodan, Vesna Pusić, Ivan Rogić, Aleksandar Štulhofer, Anton Tus, Radovan Vukadinović, Herman Vukušić, Josip Županov

Međunarodni izdavački savjet – International Advisory Board

Anton Bebler (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Janusz Bugajski (Washington DC, USA), Christina Doctare (Stockholm, Sweden), Bjorn Egge (Oslo, Norway), Matthew Friedman (White River Junction, Vermont, USA), Marjan Malešič (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Anton Žabkar (Ljubljana, Slovenia)

UDK – UDS Classification

Josip Prgomet

Lektura i korektura – Editing and proofreading

Ljiljana Cikota

Grafičko oblikovanje – Art Director

Darko Bednjanec

Web stranice – Webmaster

Ivica Petrinić

Priprema za tisak – Desk Top Publishing

Naklada Jesenski i Turk

Tisak – Printed by

MTT-graf, Zagreb

© POLEMOS™ 2009. - Izrada: Biobit d.o.o. - Dizajn: ZhZ design