issue date: december 2009
THE NEW REFORM OF RUSSIAN ARMED FORCED: EXPERIENCES FROM THE RUSSIAN-GEORGIAN CONFLICT
The Russian Armed Forces have started a new reform with their almost complete qualitative and quantitative transfigure which is supposed to finish in 2012. Reform processes in Russian Armed Forces of such amplitude are usually connected with the most recent experiences from war conflicts in which they participated, so even these reforms are connected with experiences from the recently ended Russian-Georgian conflict in which Russia accomplished a fast military victory. The Russian-Georgian conflict was lead in the style of conventional wars of the 20th century and it can be said that it was the first conflict of that kind in the new century with which the hypothesis how the conventional wars are a definite history and how eventual conflicts of the new age will have exclusively the shape and the content of asymmetrical conflicts-simplificatedly said-will be lead as different shapes of terrorist-antiterrorist actions and operations, has been completely devaluated. Throughout the Russian-Georgian conflict the Russian Armed Forces and the military leadership have gained a full affirmation of value of the reform processes performed in Putin’s era, but simultaneously there has been a showing of a sequence of weaknesses, due to which the Russian Armed Forces, no matter on the doubtless brilliant success, have again started a new cycle of reform processes, which were initiated by the president Medvedev after the end of the conflict. Currently it is rather difficult to filtrate their possible success because they just began, however the Russian Army has up till now implemented an extremely large qualitative transformation during a relatively short period, which represents an assurance also in this case.
SPECIAL MILITARY POLICE COUNTER-TERRORIST UNITS: CROATIA AND THE WORLD
The escalation of terrorism in the modern world has conditioned the establishment of the “third option” (the space between the police and army) and the creation of a “third force” (special forces) to combat terrorism. An integral part of the establishment and development of the Republic of Croatia and its armed forces is the formation and development of special military and police anti-terrorist forces. These parallel processes have their source in the conditions of the Homeland War. Special forces have played a crucial role in the Homeland War and the liberation of Croatia. Special police unit and Special Operations Battalion are not only one of the pillars of Croatian anti-terrorist capacity, but also an important factor in Croatian integration into Euro-Atlantic security and defense associations.
NON-MILITARY SECURITY THREATS AND CONTEMPORARY WARFAR
Non-military security threats, which appear with increased intensity in the time of crisis, have become a threatening factor for the very core of international security. Have threats such as natural disasters, global warming, terrorism, organized crime, corruption, proliferation of arms, fundamentalism, human trafficking, drug trade, disruption in the provision of electronic banking and money transfer, forgeries, fraud and similar criminal activities, become a decisive factor for global (in)security? Contemporary unconventional and non-traditional threats have a considerable impact on the conduct of contemporary warfare, which increasingly assumes an asymmetric shape, i.e. state (Asymmetric Warfare), making it impossible to take a proportional response (how does one define and carry out retaliation or deterrence in the case of terrorism, human trafficking, etc.?). The new circumstances call for new doctrines, which are not created by professionals or defense and security experts in the closed circles of their cabinets and administrative offices, but are formed in cooperation with the public as a component of public policies. It should not be forgotten that classic, conventional threats have not disappeared and that we live in a century in which conventional and unconventional conflicts complement each other. It is therefore necessary to strengthen security mechanisms and instruments of the international community. This paper analyzes warfare as a global phenomenon and the mechanisms for its prevention, as well as the role of national states concerning security mechanisms and instruments of the international community. Some features of the new approach are presented which, in the author’s opinion, must be based on knowledge about the international environment and on public policies. The final sections of the paper present the attitudes of the Croatian public regarding the most prominent threats to national security, integration and participation of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia in international military missions and operations.
GERMAN “SPECIAL PATH” (SONDERWEG) IN CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS: CONSCRIPTION AND THE CONCEPT OF INNER LEADERSHIP (INNERE FÜHRUNG) AS DEMOCRATIC CONTROL OF THE ARMED FORCES? - STUDENT FORUM
The post-World War II forming of the German Armed forces has been a global, but above all German sensitive issue, among other things because of the burden of the past that was often emphasized. Therefore, the army of West Germany (Bundeswehr) had to be adapted to civil democratic value system, by consensus of political structures. Opposite to the post-Cold War trend of professionalization of the armed forces, nowadays prevailing in NATO member countries, Germany sustains conscription. This article tries to show that conscription, along with the concept of “inner leadership” (Innere Führung), primarily by its political legitimation represents a specific way of (democratic) “bridging” the civil-military gap in Germany.
RUSKA POLITIKA NA BALKANU, Vladimir Filipović - Headley James (2008.) Russia and the Balkans: Foreign Policy from Yeltsin to Putin. London: Hurst Publishers. 552 str.
REDARSTVENO - OBAVJEŠTAJNI SUSTAV NDH, Radoslav Zaradić - Kovačić, Davor (2009.) Redarstveno-obavještajni sustav Nezavisne Države Hrvatske od 1941. do 1945. godine. Zagreb: Hrvatski institut za povijest. 328 str.
RUSIJA U DOBA PUTINA, Lana Filipčić - Politkovskaya, Anna S. (2008.) Putinska Rusija. Zagreb: SysPrint. Prevela Branka Savić. 280. str.
ANTROPOLOGIJA CIVILNO-VOJNIH ODNOSA, Kruno Kardov - Lutz, Catherine (2001.) Homefront. A Military City and the American 20th Century. Boston: Beacon Press. 317 str.
Branka Galić, Nenad Fanuko, Kruno Kardov, Petra Rodik
Igor Primorac (Melbourne, Australia), Miroslav Hadžić (Beograd, Srbija), Norman Cigar (Vienna, Virginia, USA)
Vjekoslav Afrić, Damir Barbarić, Josip Barić, Tomislav Bunjevac, Ivan Cifrić, Ognjen Čaldarović, Benjamin Čulig, Zvonimir Freivogel, Rade Kalanj, Vjeran Katunarić, Vladimir Kolesarić, Mirjana Krizmanić, Krešimir Kufrin, Zvonimir Lerotić, Davorka Matić, Milan Mesić, Robert Mikac, Tomislav Murati, Darko Polšek, Ivo Prodan, Vesna Pusić, Ivan Rogić, Aleksandar Štulhofer, Anton Tus, Radovan Vukadinović, Herman Vukušić
International Advisory Board
Anton Bebler (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Janusz Bugajski (Washington DC, USA), Christina Doctare (Stockholm, Sweden), Matthew Friedman (White River Junction, Vermont, USA), Marjan Malešič (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Anton Žabkar (Ljubljana, Slovenia)
Editing and proofreading
Desk Top Publishing
Tiskara Rotim i Market