issue date: june 2010
AN ANALYSIS OF ADAPTATION OF INSURGENT – TERRORIST STRUCTURES IN POPULATION-CENTRIC OPERATIONAL CULTURE IN THE CASE OF AFGHANISTAN
The basic threat of new operational environment is fact that technologically and organizationally completely inferior asymmetric opponent becoming more superior in process of adaptation and learning, and by this way reducing superiority of conventional opponent. Aim of this article is to categorically define and develop an analysis of magnitude of adaptation of insurgent-terrorist structures as tool for application of efficient counterinsurgency strategy. This tool or instrument is basically of qualitative-quantitative nature, and comprises not only military dimension, but all others also – political, diplomatic, economic, sociological and others, which are very often dominant or crucial related to military dimension. The purpose of magnitude of adaptation is to comprise process of adaptation of insurgent-terrorist structures at the very beginning, while new operation intervention is at the initial development phase, with aim to increase own time for efficient adaptation of forces and operations. An analysis of adaptation of insurgent-terrorist structures is based at culture, where needs and security of the population are at the focal point of action.
CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN CROATIA - PUBLIC ATTITUDES
The paper presents and analyzes the results of the research on attitudes of the Croatian public (N = 3.420) with regard to the characteristics of civil-military relations in Croatia, conducted in 2008. Research included establishing public opinion on (1) the stability and character of civil-military relations in the Republic of Croatia, (2) the role and actions of individual actors in the exercise of civilian control of armed forces, and (3) deviations from the desired model of civil-military relations. Results indicate that in the public opinion prevails the image of proportional stability of civil-military relations in Croatia and generally satisfactory level of achievement of formal civilian control of armed forces. However, there is a fairly widespread perception of various forms of deviation from the desired model of civil-military relations, and insufficient involvement of civil society institutions in control the armed forces. CAF officers’ general assessment of the stability and character of civil-military relations in Croatia is largely congruent with the established views of citizens, but the officer’s evaluation of activities of individual actors and of some aspects of deviations from the desired model of civil-military relations differ from the judgments of the public. Overall, the results suggest the existence of the expectations of the Croatian public related to the continuation of building civil-military relations in Croatia and the need for investing extra effort in the development of civil-military relations that are appropriate for a democratic political context.
HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONISM: ETHICAL, LEGAL AND SECURITY ISSUES IN 21TH CENTURY
During the last two decades, the main challenges to international peace and security have been so called “asymmetric” threats, such as global terrorism and organized crime, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, uncontrolled migrations and political instability caused by “failed” states. These threats have helped generate a new security paradigm within which humanitarian, social, economic and environmental dimensions of security are considered as of paramount importance, and which emphasizes protection of fundamental human rights. The concept of human security places the individual and not the state in the center of security politics. This thinking has led to significant changes in the way we currently understand the relationship between state sovereignty and human rights. In this new paradigm, state sovereignty is no longer viewed simply through the lens of state’s rights but also through its obligations towards the international community and, especially, its citizens. Today, respect for state sovereignty is increasingly tied to that state’s respect for the rights and liberties of its citizens. This modification of the meaning of sovereignty parallels changes in politics and institutional context of humanitarian interventionism, what can be recognized in increased willingness of the international community to use all means necessary, including force, against those states that breed violence, generate humanitarian crises and constitute danger to regional and global security.
OPERATION SEA LION AND THE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE GREAT POWERS (1939 – 1941)
From the political and strategic point of view, the period of the Second World War until the German attack on the Soviet Union is extremely complex. The main reasons are the Hitler-Stalin pact and the unexpected German victories in the West. Due to the fact that the British refused Hitler’s peace offers, Hitler formally started the invasion preparations known under its codename, Sea Lion. Throughout Operation Sea Lion the interests of the great powers overlapped. While taking a strategic break between the victories in the West and the attack on the Soviet Union, Hitler tried to use the operation as a strategic deception. In fact, without a serious plan, the Germans were never likely to have attempted the invasion. In the West, Hitler wanted to exert a pressure on Great Britain to accept his terms of peace while in the East, the goal of the Operation was to convince Stalin that the Germans would take no offensive attacks before the war against Great Britain had been finished. Hitler’s deception proved to be successful in Stalin’s case whereas in Great Britain it did not achieve its aim. The threats of invasion further enabled Churchill to gain supporters after defeats in Norway and France in May, 1940.
MYTHOLOGISATION ON THE EXAMPLE HISTORICAL FIGURES KING MARKO
With the awakening of national consciousness and the struggle for liberation from Ottoman rule (which ended a certificate of recognition of independence of Serbia at the Berlin Congress in 1878.) for some Serb circles through the 19th century, there was the idea of Setting up a large Serbian state. According to the germinal ideas that have given their final shape in the works of Serbian minister Ilija Garašanin and linguist and reformer Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic, Greater Serbia was supposed to restore radiance and power of the medieval Serbian Slavonic and become a leading force in this part of Europe. One of the arguments by which all others are Karadzic and used to justify their irredentist aspirations were similar to oral cultural heritage of Southeastern Europe, primarily in the form of songs from the people. One of the real historical person of whose deeds the people sang was Prince (King) Marko. His popularity will be used by Serbian irredentists like Vuk Karadzic. In addition to the Serbs, Marko Kraljevic has enjoyed a great reputation trough Croatian folk songs, which is also used by various political circles in Croatia. The aim is to show concrete examples in what contexts and for any / of whose goals is used figure of Prince (King) Marko.
STRME STAZE BIJELE KUĆE, Ivona Pastor - Lalić, Dražen (2009.) Obama: Strme staze do Bijele kuće. Zagreb: Novi list, Adamić. 173 str.
SOCIOLOGIJA TERORIZMA, Jelena Jakšić, Martina Putar-Novoselec - Blain, Michael (2009.) The Sociology of Terrorism: Studies in Power, Subjection, and Victimage Ritual. Boca Raton, Florida: Universal-Publishers. 215. str.
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